California Department of Food and Agriculture. “A Food Foresight Analysis of Agricultural Biotechnology: A Report to the Legislature.” January 1, 2003. Accessed September 26, 2013. www.cdfa.ca.gov/files/pdf/ag_biotech_report_03.pdf.
Séralini, Giles-Eric, Robin Mesnage, Emilie Clair, Steeve Gress, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois, and Dominique Cellier. “Genetically Modified Crops Safety Assessments: Present Limits and Possible Improvements,” Environmental Sciences Europe 23:10 (2011). Accessed September 26, 2013. doi:10.1186/2190-4715-23-10. http://www.enveurope.com/content/23/1/10.
“Purpose: We reviewed 19 studies of mammals fed with commercialized genetically modified soybean and maize which represent, per trait and plant, more than 80% of all environmental genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated on a large scale, after they were modified to tolerate or produce a pesticide. We have also obtained the raw data of 90-day-long rat tests following court actions or official requests. The data obtained include biochemical blood and urine parameters of mammals eating GMOs with numerous organ weights and histopathology findings.”
“Conclusions: The 90-day-long tests are insufficient to evaluate chronic toxicity, and the signs highlighted in the kidneys and livers could be the onset of chronic diseases. However, no minimal length for the tests is yet obligatory for any of the GMOs cultivated on a large scale, and this is socially unacceptable in terms of consumer health protection. We are suggesting that the studies should be improved and prolonged, as well as being made compulsory, and that the sexual hormones should be assessed too, and moreover, reproductive and multigenerational studies ought to be conducted too.”
Freese, William and David Schubert. “Safety Testing and Regulation of Genetically Engineered Foods.” Biotechnology Genetic Engineering Review 21 (2004): 299-324. Accessed September 26, 2013. http://www.centerforfoodsafety.com/files/freese_safetytestingandregulationofgeneticallyebgineeredfoods _nov212004_62269.pdf.
“The artificial introduction of foreign genetic constructs into plant cells creates numerous opportunities for potentially hazardous, unintended effects. These include the over-production of native allergens or toxins, nutritional deficits, and, as discussed above, the creation of novel fusion proteins with unknown properties. Unintended effects are common in all cases where GE techniques are used. For example, engineering a human gene into human cells significantly increases or decreases the expression levels of 5% of the genes in the cell (see Schubert, 2002 for discussion). Excess lignin production in Bt corn (Saxena and Stotzky, 2001), reduced levels of certain phytoestrogens in glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (Lappe et al., 1998) and unpredicted changes in the small molecule metabolism of GE potatoes (Roessner et al., 2001) are three of many examples of unintended effects in GE crops (see also Kuiper et al., 2001, Haslberger, 2003).” (pg 8).
Center for Food Safety. “International Labeling Laws.” Accessed September 26, 2013. http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/issues/976/ge-food-labeling/international-labeling-laws.
See website for list of all 64 countries.
Americans favor labeling of GMO ingredients:
Kopicki, Allison. “Strong Support for Labeling Modified Foods.” New York Times, July 27, 2013. Accessed September 26, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/28/science/strong-support-for-labeling-modified-foods.html?_r=1&.
“Americans overwhelmingly support labeling foods that have been genetically modified or engineered, according to a New York Times poll conducted this year, with 93 percent of respondents saying that foods containing such ingredients should be identified.”
Biotech industry spends millions to block GMO labeling:
Goldenberg, Suzanne. “Prop 37: Food Companies Spend $45m to Defeat California GM Label Bill.” The Guardian, November 5, 2012. Accessed September 26, 2012. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/nov/05/prop-37-food-gm-bill.
“Monsanto and other agribusiness and food companies have spent more than $45m (£28m) to defeat a California ballot measure that would require labelling of some GM foods.”
Consolidation of seed companies:
Howard, Philip H. “Visualizing Consolidation in the Global Seed Industry: 1996–2008.” Sustainability 1:4 (2009): 1266-1287. Accessed September 26, 2013. doi: 10.3390/su1041266.
Link to abstract which has access to free pdf full-text: http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/1/4/1266.
“During the study period the firms that eventually became the largest acquired or created joint ventures with more than two hundred firms.” (pg 1273)
Three companies control over half of commercial seed market worldwide:
“Seeds Giants vs. U.S. Farmers.” Center for Food Safety and Save Our Seeds, 2013. Accessed September 26, 2013. http://www.centerforfoodsafety.org/files/seed-giants_final_04424.pdf.
“In the last few decades, the U.S. has led a radical shift toward commercialization, consolidation, and control of seed ownership. Three agrichemical firms—Monsanto, DuPont, and Syngenta—now control 53 percent of the global commercial seed market.” (pg 2)
CBS News. “AP: Monsanto Strongarms Seed Industry.” January 4, 2011. Accessed September 29, 2013. http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-500395_162-5978152.html.
“With Monsanto's patented genes being inserted into roughly 95 percent of all soybeans and 80 percent of all corn grown in the U.S., the company also is using its wide reach to control the ability of new biotech firms to get wide distribution for their products, according to a review of several Monsanto licensing agreements and dozens of interviews with seed industry participants, agriculture and legal experts."
We used the USDA data base to search for seed prices in the US in 1996 and 2012 (corn); and 1997 and 2012 (soy). Below, please find instructions on how to replicate our search and view the raw data we used to calculate change in cost over each time period:
(1) Go to http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/commodity-costs-and-returns.aspx
(2) In the field labeled "data" please select "recent costs and returns: corn"
(3) download the spreadsheet titled "U.S.: 1996-2000, 2001-04, 2005-09, 2010-12"
(2) In the field labeled "data" please select "recent costs and returns: soybeans"
(3) download the spreadsheet titled "U.S.: 1997-2001, 2002-05, 2006-12"
Corn Operating Costs:
Cost of seed per acre in 1996: $26.65
Cost of seed per acre in 2012: $89.88
Percent change from 1996 to 2012: 237.2%
Soy Operating Costs:
Cost of seed per acre in 1997: $19.72
Cost of seed per acre in 2012: $62.68
Percent change from 1997 to 2012: 217%
Research shows that spending on SNAP (food stamps) is among one of the best forms of government stimulus. See this article for more statistics: http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2013/10/food-stamps-statistics-SNAP-...
Research from the above article was drawn from a report released by Moody’s Economy.com. To learn more about the report, see here: http://money.cnn.com/2008/01/29/news/economy/stimulus_analysis/
The renewable energy master plan outlines how 100% of the City’s electricity, heating and cooling can come from renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind and energy from waste, by 2030. See more here: http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/vision/sustainability/carbon-reductio...
Number of libraries in the United States: 17,000
Number of McDonald’s: 14,000
According this NYT editorial, if minimum wage had risen at same rate as US productivity growth, it would now be $17/hour: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/12/opinion/redefining-the-minimum-wage.ht...
Other research indicates that, if minimum wage had risen at same rate as US productivity growth, it would now be $21.72/hour: http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/min-wage1-2012-03.pdf
From section 3.3.1 of Constitutional and Legal Protection of the Right to Food around the World. See the full report here: http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/ap554e/ap554e.pdf
A total of 23 constitutions recognize the right to food explicitly as a human right.
Of these, nine countries recognize the right as a separate and stand-alone right:
Ten constitutions recognize the right to food of a specific segment of the population. These countries have provisions regarding the right of food to Children:
Additionally, Costa Rica protects the right to food of indigenous children; while South Africa also specifies the right to food of prisoners and detainees.
An additional five countries recognize the right to food explicitly as part of a human right to an adequate standard of living, quality of life, or development:
Additionally, the right to food is explicitly recognized in Brazil and in Suriname as part of the right to work.
See page 18 of this report: http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/view-document.html?gid=14235
The scientists have recently demonstrated that flying a single 10-square-meter kite could produce 10 kilowatts of power, which could supply electricity for about 10 homes. See more here: http://phys.org/news137388314.html
To learn more, read this article: http://www.utne.com/politics/philosophy-classes-zm0z12sozlin.aspx#axzz2Z...
Statistic from new report by Institute of Mechanical Engineers: http://www.imeche.org/knowledge/themes/environment/global-food
“Harvard researchers Julia Boehm and Laura Kubzansky discovered that certain psychological traits—optimism, positive emotions and a sense of meaning—offer measurable protection against heart attacks and strokes. These characteristics have been found to slow the progression of cardiovascular disease as well.”
Read about the study here: http://odewire.com/280129/don%E2%80%99t-worry-be-healthy.html
Read more here: http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/176888/icode/
Brazil’s Belo Horizonte (2.5 million) cut hunger so much in just 12 years that deaths of children under 5 fell 72.6%. between 1993 and 2005, p. 4
Cecilia Rocha and lara Lessa, Urban Governances for Food Security: The Alternative Food System in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, citing Lansky et al., 2007.